In brief, we learn that deforestation for implanting pastures is probably not economically justifiable at the individual rancher level and certainly not at greater spatial levels. We also show that wood extraction is not likely to be economically feasible for most landowners.
We learn that policy interventions to encourage biological diversity at the local level may focus upon informational barriers, conservation education and maximizing the sustainable, managed harvest of extractive and non-extractive goods and services other than cattle ranching. Finally, we learn that justification exists for integrating environmental policy in the Pantanal from local through, potentially international levels due to the global value of the Pantanal’s unique natural environment. Click here to read more…
In December 2010, BP became one of two private sector participants in the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility’s (FCPF) Carbon Fund. This Fund aims to make payments on delivery of emission reductions from REDD+ (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). It is designed to catalyse the forest carbon market utilizing the methodologies, accounting procedures and social and environmental safeguards negotiated by the Facility and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Learn more..
The EKO Green Carbon Fund (GCF) invests in forestry, agriculture and avoided deforestation projects for the California compliance offset market. The fund provides access to offset types that are already eligible under California’s emission reduction programme, such as forest management, as well as protocols that are under development and will unlock new supply in what is expected to be a short market, such as nutrient management and soil carbon. Learn more..
The county of Chicomuselo, in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, is home to approximately 25,000 residents who have traditionally relied on subsistence agriculture and commercial coffee production for survival. The county is among the poorest in the State of Chiapas, and Chiapas is one of the three poorest states in Mexico where about 76% of people live in poverty. As part of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, the number of Canadian mining companies seeking permits to mine gold and silver in Mexico increased exponentially, and currently there are over 90 companies operating in the country.
In 2007, Blackfire Exploration, a Calgary-based company, purchased a mining concession in Chicomuselo. Open-pit barite mine operations then began in the Ejido – collectively owned and cultivated parcels of land. After mining began, community members noticed increasing damage to roads and houses in the town of Chicomuselo as a result of trucks carrying weight greater than what the infrastructure could handle. Extensive deforestation around the mine led to ecological changes, such as rerouting of streams and an increase in the frequency of mudslides, even during the dry season. Read more..
Case Studies from Community Forest Management Projects in Ghana
Executive Summary: Community forest management (CFM) is an approach to natural resource management that takes into account the human communities living around or within a resource. CFM has become more common in both developed and developing countries since the 1980s. Generally, CFM focuses on interdependent ecological, economic, and social elements, and has therefore been categorized as one form of sustainable development. Although CFM projects have grown in number, the success of such initiatives varies widely. This is due to a number of factors that are influenced by the local, national, and global context within which a project is situated. For example, Ghana is a country that has experienced severe deforestation and, as a result, has implemented CFM strategies to address the ecological health of its forests in addition to achieving social and economic development goals.
Natural resource management theory and practice has shifted significantly in recent decades. In many countries environmental management has been the realm of national or state governments, with little recognition of the people living closest to the resource. However, the idea that local people may have a role to play in the planning and management of their surrounding environments is gaining ground. One form in which this concept has been applied is community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). By decentralizing natural resource management, CBNRM is an effort to incorporate local communities into guardianship of their immediate environment in an attempt to meet ecological and social goals on both local and global scales (Agrawal & Gibson, 1999). The practice of CBNRM has been supported by a number of movements and paradigm shifts in theory regarding humans and the environment. The “flux of nature” paradigm shift in ecology, for example, promoted new thinking in how species, especially humans, relate to their environments. Keep reading..
A Study about Re-Thinking the Legitimacy of Institutions for Climate Finance
Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a scale necessary to avert the worst impacts of climate change, while at the same time building resilience to these impacts, will require an unprecedented mobilization of financial resources.1 A significant amount of these resources will need to be raised from public sources in developed countries, invested in developing countries, and be managed by one or more international institutions entrusted with a set of specific functions (see Table 1).
The question of which international institutions—new, existing, or reformed—should carry out these functions has become central to the negotiations to reach a “global deal” on climate change. Negotiations are taking place in the context of the Bali Action Plan, a decision of the COP to the UNFCCC, and in the context of the Copenhagen Accord, a highlevel political statement that has been supported by 138 Parties to the UNFCCC.2 The Bali Action Plan emphasizes the need for “[i]mproved access to adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources” but provides little guidance on institutional design. The Copenhagen Accord anticipates the establishment of mechanisms to finance reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). keep reading..
Case Studies about Measuring and Assessing Forest Degradation
Abstract: This working paper suggests that degradation is a form of (unsustainable) forest management and that measures to counter degradation, in particular Community Forest Management (CFM) lead not only to reduction in degradation but to forest enhancement as well. While reduced degradation is to be credited and rewarded under a Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) mechanism, it may in fact be more important to measure and reward the increases in carbon stock due to the enhanced growth than the decreases in emissions due to reducing the degradation.
Introduction: Degradation is forest management: Most people, if asked, would probably say that degradation is more or less the opposite of forest management, indeed that it occurs because there is no effective forest management. We argue in this case study that from the point of view of dealing with degradation under the new United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) climate mitigation mechanism REDD, it is essential that forest degradation is considered not as a minor form or variant of deforestation but as (unsustainable) forest management.
Background: Most urban households in Ghana cook on charcoal, using traditional charcoal stoves made of sheet metal. These stoves are polluting and inefficient, and the cost of charcoal is a significant proportion of household income. Most of the wood used to produce the charcoal comes from unsustainable sources, so charcoal production contributes to both deforestation and greenhouse gas production. Toyola Energy was set up to bring cleaner stoves and other energy products to households in Ghana.
The organisation: Toyola Energy Limited was founded in 2006 by Suraj Wahab Ologburo, a former accountant and Ernest Kwasi Kyei, an engineer, both of whom had been trained in stove production under the Ghana Household Energy programme (GHEP). They obtained a loan from E+Co to start commercial production and sales, providing work to 77 other artisans including some trained under GHEP. Further loans and carbon finance have enabled the growth of the business, which by April 2011 had five production centres in different parts of Ghana and one in the neighbouring Republic of Togo…
Click here to learn more about Toyola Energy Limited